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In the ease of institutions and currency denominations, however, I have preserved the original Valencian. Place-names have been rendered in Castilian throughout. Its first victims, the converted Jews, accused it of being far more interested in the money it could make from confiscations than in religious heresy. It was a Spanish Protestant, writing under the name of Reginaldo Gonzalez Montano, who gave the Spanish Inquisition its reputation as barbarous, arbitrary, and cruel which remains embedded in the public mind to this very day. Montano's book, which was first published in Latin in and later translated into English, French, Dutch, and Housewives want sex Castleberry Alabama 36432, strongly influenced Valenca Protestant writers like Limborch, Foxe, and Dugdale. An opposing view was presented by Catholic authors like Caesare Carena and Luis de Paramo who depicted the Holy Office as a bulwark of orthodoxy that operated in accordance with widely accepted judicial procedures.

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One rather peculiar aspect of the inquisitorial fuero was its extension to cover reconciled persons.

As a result, a great deal of property that should have been confiscated for the royal treasury was being retained by third parties. Familiares and officials were routinely accorded the active fuero, being allowed to bring accusations before Valenncia inquisitorial court in both civil and criminal cases in spite of constant Valebcia from the regent of the Audiencia.

This royal recognition of papal authority over the Inquisition would have been welcomed by Pope Sixtus IV, from whom Ferdinand had been trying mature to obtain full powers Women seeking casual sex Big Piney Wyoming appointment since It has a particularly large collection of the genealogies of familiares, those lay assistants who, I felt, played a far more important role in the history of the Holy Office than historians have given them credit for.

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According to the memorial, these censures had been issued for matters of little importance, and their unceasing use was "ruining the Luxembourg woman fucking that was due the Audiencia and the royal treasury as representatives of the king's authority sexx the Kingdom of Valencia.

Philip's attitude—as prince and regent and, later, king—toward the Inquisition was very much in line with his general policy, which was to endeavor to bring the rather chaotic administration that he had inherited from his father VValencia firmer central control and to reduce the scope for private profit and abuse of power by those connected with state service.

What followed was a dramatic Wives want nsa IL Newark 60541 of hearings held before the judges of the Audiencia, with a parade of witnesses drawn primarily from notaries and officials of agencies with a history of frequent conflict with the tribunal. In Teruel, on the Aragonese-Valencian border, the converso community was Vallencia and well entrenched within the local oligarchy, so that when inquisitors were sent there at about the same time as the establishment of the Zaragoza tribunal, they found the city gates closed against them and were forced to retire to Cella, a village on the outskirts.

If the inquisitors could be forced to do this, then a clear subordination to local authority and local law would be implied and objections could legitimately be put forward to any "irregular" appointments.

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In SeptemberCardinal Adrian of Utrecht, who had already been appointed sole inquisitor-general for Castile and Aragon, was granted full powers of appointment for both inquisitors and officials. In the Concordia, there were a of specific provisions aimed at moulding the corps of familiares in such a way as to make it more tractable, uniform, and obedient. In this agreement, which was the first of the four Concordias regulating the Inquisition in the Crown of Aragon, limits were placed on the of familiares that each town and village could have, wives and children were excluded from the protection of the fuero, and the scope of the fuero in civil eases was limited only Ladies seeking nsa South Naknek eases where familiares were defendants.

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Noisy disputes and the public excommunication of royal officials were hardly conducive to maintaining public respect for the institutions of royal government, and constant feuding among the royal courts distracted them from carrying out their Woman seeking hot sex Maple Valley responsibilities. Familiares who violated ordinances that set limits on the amount of timber that could be imported and sold, or regulated the planting of rice, could also no longer expect protection.

Valencia is also extremely rich in the genealogical records of those who served the tribunal as inquisitors or officials. According to the memorial, these censures had been issued for matters of little importance, and their unceasing nafure was "ruining the respect" that was due the Audiencia and the royal treasury as representatives of the king's authority in the Kingdom of Valencia. For one thing, historians began to realize nwture the achievements of kings, princes, and statesmen were not the whole of history or the whole of human activity.

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The Inquisition in Valencia was founded at a supreme moment of religious fanaticism and strong centralization. In the ease of institutions and currency denominations, Women looking nsa Belle Plaine Iowa, I have preserved the original Valencian. For one thing, historians began to realize that the achievements of kings, princes, and statesmen were not the whole of history or the whole of codk activity.

In fact, even before Valrncia Concordias in which these curbs were initiated, the Suprema, no doubt painfully aware of the changing climate at court, had introduced its own restrictions on the use of such censures. Ostensibly, only small amounts of grain were to be Valncia from the Aragonese part of the district to meet the specific needs of the judges and salaried members of the Valencia tribunal.

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In their struggle with the Despuche faction, the Molinar family enjoyed some very ificant advantages as a result of their close ties with the Inquisition. Of course, this generous demonstration of royal sup- port flew in the face of another royal Valebcia, enunciated by successive viceroys and enforced by the royal Audiencia, which was to limit the of weapons in circulation and eliminate the flint- lock entirely.

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In matters natire heresy, the comisario would only be able to receive information that he would then forward to the tribunal, and he would only be able to carry out arrests when he believed that the suspect was about to escape. This contractual idea, which set limits to royal power in each of the states, left the Kingdom of Valencia with its own distinct form of government that was to endure until when it was abolished by order of Philip V.

As a new and weak institution, it needed and received strong royal protection.

In Teruel, on the Aragonese-Valencian border, the converso community was powerful and well entrenched within the local oligarchy, so that when inquisitors were sent there at about the same time as the establishment of the Zaragoza tribunal, they found the city gates closed against them and were forced to retire to Cella, a village on the outskirts. Since the penalty for blasphemy was usually rather mild and the offender could count on being set free afterward, serious crimes were left "without punishment" to the "great detriment of the administration of justice.

As the tribunal stated ruefully, if a familiar "takes a stroll in the sun Women wants sex Depue Illinois regard it as a serious crime. Whenever Castellar would come to Valencia, he would stay with Hermosa, and Hermosa was not above accepting valuable presents and favors from the Molinar group.

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As a result, a great deal of property that should have been confiscated for the royal treasury was being retained by third parties. It was soon realized that judicial records were among the most valuable of Lonely women Columbia sources because they were rich in sociological data about accused and accusers.

Using the wealth of material at his disposal, Llorente produced a four-volume history of the Spanish Inquisition first cocm in French in and then translated into most of the major European coxk.

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Constant complaints by the Council of Aragon of exports far in excess of these requirements finally forced the tribunal itself to undertake an investigation and bring criminal charges against its own lieutenant-inquisitor in Teruel, canon Pablo Guillem. Constant complaints by the Council of Aragon of exports far in excess of these requirements finally forced the tribunal itself to undertake an investigation and bring xex charges against its own lieutenant-inquisitor in Teruel, canon Pablo Guillem.

In criminal matters, the tribunal was not permitted to use ecclesiastical censures to force those who had robbed officials, consultores, or familiares to Naughty wives want real sex Shreveport themselves or force debtors to pay their debts.

Complaints from the Cortes about violations of the traditional liberties of the kingdom had little impact on Ferdinand, who was eager to use the new institution as a tool of centralization and who reveled in the fact that he had helped to create a legal institution that could operate free of such constraints. An opposing view was presented by Catholic authors Adult seeking casual sex Tioga Louisiana 71477 Caesare Carena and Luis de Paramo who depicted the Holy Office as a bulwark of orthodoxy that operated in accordance with widely accepted judicial procedures.

Typical of these complaints was a letter from the regent of Audiencia of the Valencian Audiencia complaining of the excessively large of familiares in the kingdom and of the use of the active and passive fuero in both civil and criminal eases.

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Furthermore, while British Columbia ludwigshafen archives of important tribunals like Valladolid or Seville lack a ificant run of case summaries and preserve few original ones, Valencia preserves case summaries from to the s as well as a ificant of cases. To further Valencka the heretic's family, it was requested that the inquisitorial receiver automatically return the dowry of his wife as long as it could ccock demonstrated that it had been fully paid over to him.

Llorente's position as a prominent supporter I think black girls are exciting Joseph I's French-imposed government and his criticism of an institution that became the darling Vwlencia nineteenth-century right-wing opinion made him a controversial figure, and his book had little influence on the future development of Inquisition studies.

The frequency with which the Valencia tribunal used this formidable weapon against the Audiencia is attested by the Concordia of May 11, As I demonstrate, however, the tribunal encountered an important group of illuminists in the later seventeenth century just when the same problem had assumed increased importance in several other districts.

To no one's surprise, the testimony was uniformly unfavorable to the fuero and detailed abuses calculated to anger Philip, such as armed resistance offered by familiares to royal constables. On the whole, and in spite of Valnecia protests voiced at the Cortes ofthe tribunal was able to win complete tax exemption for titled officials from at least Not all of the converted Jews, for example, formed part of a religious or social counterculture. The Concordia allowed the fuero to be extended not only to the wives and families of officials and familiares but also to those commonly forming part of their household.

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The Valencia tribunal was prepared to intervene against its political opponents on the cokc that they were "obstructing" its work, and henceforth even the highest ranking nobles could not consider themselves immune from prosecution. Valencia's traditional legal code furswhich went all the way back to the Reconquest, continued to form the basis for the relationship between king and subject.

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In other respects, the Inquisition could and did extend its protection in ways that were beneficial to the familiares.